Tuesday , February 20 2018
Free Online Courses
Home / News / Health Care Reform And Women: A Comparison Of The ACA And The AHCA

Health Care Reform And Women: A Comparison Of The ACA And The AHCA

By Susan Blumenthal, M.D. and Alexandrea Adams

The current commemoration of National Women’s Health Week offered an necessary time to mark the progress that has been made in advancing women’s health over the previous 20 years and to spotlight what extra must be completed to realize women’s health fairness in America. Historically, women have skilled discrimination in health care regardless of making 80 % of health care selections for his or her households, utilizing extra medical providers than males, and struggling larger incapacity from continual illness. Before the mid 1990’s, women have been typically excluded as topics from medical analysis research and underrepresented within the majority of medical trials. Men have been thought-about to be the “generic” people in scientific research, and the outcomes from all male research have been then generalized to information the analysis, remedy, and prevention of illness in women. Additionally, interventions to advertise more healthy life and stop illnesses like HIV/AIDS didn’t goal women’s distinctive wants. Inequalities in health care restricted women’s entry to lifesaving diagnostic, remedy, and prevention providers. Furthermore, many women paid extra for his or her health insurance coverage than males due to the potential for being pregnant and their longer life expectancy (on common). This omission of women as analysis topics and because the focus of prevention campaigns, in addition to limitations on entry to health care providers had put their health in danger with rising charges of coronary heart illness, diabetes, lung most cancers, autoimmune sicknesses, psychological and substance use issues, and the epidemic of AIDS.

I’m proud to have performed a management position within the 1990s because the nation’s first Deputy Assistant Secretary for Women’s Health within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to write down a brand new nationwide prescription to enhance women’s health within the Federal authorities, working with a broad vary of companions in the private and non-private sectors in America and globally. The guideline of this prescription was that our nation’s analysis, prevention, and repair supply packages should goal all the nation’s women—throughout all ages, socioeconomic, racial and ethnic backgrounds—addressing the health wants of the entire lady, in physique, thoughts and spirit. Some of the actions that have been taken throughout my tenure within the place embrace weaving a give attention to women’s health into the missions of all U.S. health businesses, establishing National Centers of Excellence on Women’s Health at educational facilities throughout the nation to foster multidisciplinary analysis, growing public schooling, enhancing health care skilled coaching on intercourse variations in illness, and fostering the profession improvement of women in drugs. I additionally established the National Women’s Health Information Center, which is a useful resource hub for complete supplies on a broad vary of women’s health points and the “Missiles to Mammograms” initiative that transferred imaging know-how from the CIA, NASA and DOD to enhance the early detection of breast most cancers and others.

In 1993, because of highly effective advocacy efforts, the National Institute of Health Revitalization Act was handed. This Act requires women and minorities to be included in medical trials supported on the NIH as a requirement for acquiring funding. Just final yr, a brand new NIH regulation was enacted to make sure that each female and male animals and cells have been included in primary science research and that findings have been analyzed for intercourse variations. These transformational insurance policies information how analysis is to be carried out within the United States to assist obtain women’s health fairness.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) laws has additionally had transformational results, including an essential component for advancing women’s health that had been lacking for all too lengthy—entry to reasonably priced, complete health care. Prior to implementation of the ACA, there have been 50 million uninsured Americans of whom 19 million have been women. Women typically paid extra for insurance coverage premiums than did males and have been extra more likely to lose their insurance coverage if divorced or widowed. In 2007, the primary reason for bankruptcies within the U.S. was lack of funds to pay medical payments. The American Journal of Public Health revealed a report in 2009 that estimated that 45,000 Americans died yearly as a result of lack of health insurance coverage. The United States was spending greater than twice that of some other nation on health care however ranked 42nd on life expectancy and 37th out of 191 nations on the health standing of our residents. We have been merely not getting what we paid for.

How the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) Improves Women’s Health

Signed into regulation on March 23, 2010, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act included a number of provisions to realize an environment friendly, efficient, and equitable health care system for each women and males. Since its implementation in 2012, the ACA has decreased the variety of uninsured women by 9.5 million within the United States. Additionally, the laws permits youth to stay on their mum or dad’s insurance coverage plan till age 26 which resulted in 7.7 million younger women presently having health insurance coverage. Another victory of the ACA is its inclusion of a “Patient’s Bill of Rights” which eliminates the gender score of premiums. Insurance corporations at the moment are prohibited from charging women larger charges than males for comparable protection. Insurance corporations additionally can’t deny protection to these individuals who have pre-existing circumstances which frequently prevented women who have been pregnant, had most cancers, a psychological sickness, or another situation from acquiring insurance coverage or paying a lot greater premiums. Furthermore, the ACA prevents insurance coverage corporations from instituting lifetime profit caps, dropping sufferers who file reimbursement claims, and ensures that a minimum of 80 % of premium funds are spent on health care as an alternative of administrative prices.

The ACA established Health Exchanges in states across the nation for individuals who wouldn’t have employer insurance coverage or qualify for Medicaid to buy particular person plans. Women whose incomes are between 100 and 400 % of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) at the moment are eligible for tax-credits in the direction of the acquisition of insurance policy inside the Marketplaces established by the regulation.

Importantly, the ACA considerably expanded eligibility for the Medicaid program, which insures low-income people at or under 138 % of the FPL. 31 states and Washington, D.C. have accepted the Medicaid enlargement provision of the laws. Medicaid supplies health insurance coverage to greater than 74 million Americans, amongst them 60% of nursing house residents and hundreds of thousands of disabled individuals. Currently, two-thirds of Medicaid beneficiaries are women. In 2010 Medicaid paid for 48 % of all births, three quarters of all public household planning providers, and offered supplemental protection for almost 1 out of 5 senior women on Medicare. The Medicaid enlargement additionally included a provision for steady protection 60 days following the delivery of a lady’s child. Before the ACA’s Medicaid enlargement, new moms have been ineligible in most states. The laws has additionally helped women who would not have youngsters acquire protection.

The ACA mandates that each one non-grandfathered insurance policy within the particular person market and authorities health care plans should embrace ten Essential Health Benefits together with ambulatory providers, emergency providers, hospitilization, maternity and new child care, psychological health and substance abuse providers, prescribed drugs, rehabilitive providers, laboratory providers, preventive and wellness providers, and pediatric care. These complete advantages are important parts for enhancing women’s health.

The ACA emphasizes prevention in addition to the remedy of illness. The United States spends $Three.2 trillion on health care—18 % of its gross home product (GDP)—however features extra as a “sick care” system somewhat than a “health care” system. In 2009, solely Three-5 % of the U.S. health finances was spent on prevention whereas 75 % of medical prices have been linked to the remedy of preventable lifestyle-related illnesses. The ACA features a provision that each one insurance policy present a variety of preventive health providers with no deductible or cost-sharing, together with well-woman visits, pap smears, mammography, HIV testing, and cervical most cancers screenings. Additionally, the ACA covers screenings and counseling for women who’re victims of violence. The ACA additionally established the Prevention and Public Health Fund which allotted $18.75 billion for prevention providers in communities and states together with immunizations, coronary heart health screenings, pandemic preparedness initiatives and different interventions. Incentives are included within the ACA for office wellness packages as nicely.

The ACA improves health look after women throughout the lifespan. It consists of necessary reproductive health providers for women. Contraceptives are coated as a part of the essential package deal of no value preventive providers that insurers are required to offer with some exceptions given for religiously-affiliated organizations. The ACA additionally consists of funding for a brand new schooling program that goals to tell teenagers about protected sexual practices and ensures that screenings for sexually-transmitted infections, together with HIV, are available, particularly for high-risk youth. The laws helps pregnant women obtain the care that they want. Although the United States is among the many most superior nations on the earth, it ranks 136th in maternal mortality fee, having the very best maternal mortality fee within the industrialized world. To shield the health of moms and infants, the ACA covers screenings for pregnant women for gestational diabetes, Hepatitis B, Rh incompatibility, HIV, and iron deficiency. Interventions to stop delivery problems as a consequence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use throughout being pregnant are additionally coated, as are folic acid dietary supplements to stop toddler delivery defects. Moreover, the ACA consists of provisions to enhance maternal and youngster health after start by requiring protection of breastfeeding help providers, and office protections for nursing women. Postpartum melancholy (PPD) detection and remedy providers in addition to PPD analysis are included within the ACA. All of those interventions have necessary protecting results for each the bodily and psychological health of moms and their youngsters.

Furthermore, the ACA focuses on the particular wants of women as they age. Women represent 57 % of the U.S. inhabitants over the age of 65, and 65 % of the inhabitants over age 85. While women have an extended life expectancy than males (on common) and are at higher danger for persistent sickness, women are much less possible than males to have the monetary assets to take care of their good health later in life. The ACA expands Medicare advantages—women represent 59% of this system’s enrolleesmasking preventive screenings for osteoporosis and different illnesses, and offering a reduction on prescribed drugs for many who discover themselves within the “donut hole”.

The ACA has additionally been a job creator in communities. With 20 million extra individuals insured due to the laws, the invoice resulted in an elevated demand for health care and the employees to offer it. The health care business now employs 15.5 million individuals—5 million new jobs because the ACA laws handed.

The American Health Care Act Will Reverse Progress in Women’s Health

With solely Republican help, the U.S. House of Representatives handed the American Health Care Act (AHCA) on May 4th, 2017 to repeal and substitute the ACA. This laws is now being debated within the U.S. Senate.

The AHCA eliminates many mandates, necessities, and funds offered underneath the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), offering states with larger autonomy about how they administer insurance coverage protection. Key AHCA provisions embrace eliminating particular person and employer insurance coverage mandates, ending Medicaid enlargement, slashing tax subsidies that assist low revenue Americans buy health insurance coverage, banning federal funding of Planned Parenthood, eliminating funding for the Public Health and Prevention Fund and permitting states to waive or modify the Essential Health Benefits package deal in addition to get rid of the prohibition on charging individuals extra for insurance coverage if they’ve a pre-existing situation.

The House health reform laws takes a machete to Medicaid, a program that gives health insurance coverage for 74 million Americans—by chopping $834 billion of federal funds over ten years from this system. The President’s FY2018 price range proposes to chop a further $610 billion from this system underneath the “pretext of reforming it”. When mixed, in accordance with a Center on Budget and Policy Priorities evaluation, this represents an estimated 45% discount in Medicaid by 2026, the most important restructuring of this system since its institution in 1965. For most members in this system, the federal authorities pays 50-75% of prices, relying on the state. Commencing in 2020, the AHCA would convert federal Medicaid funding from an open-ended matching system to an annual fastened quantity of federal dollars offered to the states. States might choose a “block grant” for cost of providers for youngsters beneath the age of 18 and low revenue mother and father of “dependent children” or a “per capita cap” strategy for 5 inhabitants teams together with seniors, individuals with disabilities, youngsters of newly eligible adults, and all different adults. This capped strategy will end in a discount of federal spending, shifting the duty to states to pay extra of the health care prices of its residents from their very own budgets in the event that they need to maintain Medicaid advantages at present ranges. Women shall be negatively impacted as a result of they’re a majority of Medicaid beneficiaries. Furthermore, with much less cash to spend on health care, state legislatures should make robust budgeting selections that would take funds away from different packages that profit women to pay for health providers or scale back medical advantages. The AHCA would additionally set the extent of tax credit score help to buy health insurance coverage utilizing primarily age and would repeal the ACA’s cost-sharing provisions for low revenue individuals. Women characterize 54 % of ACA market enrollees within the 36 states that use the federally facilitated market, healthcare.gov. An estimated 81 % of beneficiaries within the health market obtain a premium tax credit score, which offsets premium prices and makes health insurance coverage extra reasonably priced. In 2015, greater than 37 % of women who bought insurance coverage have been low revenue in comparison with 31 % of males. Because women have decrease incomes than males throughout all age teams in America, this provision of the AHCA might put women at an obstacle in comparison with males and adversely have an effect on their health.

The ACA has prohibited many discriminatory practices that have been occurring within the particular person insurance coverage market. While the AHCA maintains the gender score ban and permits youngsters to remain on their mother and father’ plan till age 26, it’ll allow states to permit insurers to cost larger premiums to people with pre-existing circumstances. If the AHCA turns into regulation, states will have the ability to acquire a waiver from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) starting in 2020 enabling insurers to cost women and males with pre-existing circumstances larger charges. States can set up high-risk swimming pools for insuring these individuals. The HHS has 60 days to evaluate state waiver requests earlier than they routinely go into impact. The AHCA consists of an modification that units apart $eight billion to assist states subsidize insurance coverage premiums for individuals with pre-existing circumstances. However, specialists estimate that that is far too little to offer adequate subsidies for all those that have pre-existing circumstances. Women who’re pregnant, have a historical past of psychological sickness, substance abuse, breast most cancers or some other situation could possibly be priced out of buying insurance coverage protection. Of specific concern is that women who’re victims of any sort of violence will be unable to acquire protection. Many assault survivors endure from continual circumstances akin to ache, gastrointestinal issues, nervousness, melancholy, and post-traumatic stress dysfunction. Women with these circumstances might need to pay extra for his or her health insurance coverage or won’t have the ability to afford it altogether.

Furthermore, the AHCA makes insurance coverage a lot much less complete by permitting states to acquire waivers to choose out of offering the Essential Health Benefits which are required beneath the ACA. All collaborating insurance policy, Medicaid and Medicare are required to cowl ten classes of advantages. Those of specific significance to women have been the inclusion of maternity care, preventive providers, and psychological and substance abuse prevention and remedy. The elimination of the Essential Health Benefits takes our nation again to an period when women had a troublesome time acquiring insurance coverage with maternity protection and different health providers. Prior to implementation of the ACA, solely 18 states had mandates for maternity protection within the particular person or small group insurance coverage plan market and there was no parity for protection of psychological and substance use issues. While the AHCA would keep preventive providers necessities for personal insurance policy, it’ll repeal the necessities for the Medicaid enlargement. States might choose to roll again protection for this inhabitants.

The Congressional Budget Office report launched final week confirms that the AHCA would reverse the progress made in advancing women’s health care in recent times. The report estimates that if the AHCA is handed, 23 million individuals will lose their insurance coverage by 2026, principally because of the Medicaid cuts. Additionally, 1 out of 6 Americans will reside in an space with an unstable non group insurance coverage market. The report predicts that insurance coverage premiums will rise for low-income, older Americans by as a lot as 9 occasions the present charges. The CBO report additionally underscores that the majority Americans will acquire much less complete protection because of the elimination of the Essential Health Benefits provisions contained within the AHCA. While the AHCA would decrease premiums for the younger and the wholesome, it is going to take away many individuals’s entry to complete medical providers.

Contraceptive protection is jeopardized for women within the AHCA. The invoice defunds Planned Parenthood (PP), a corporation that serves 2.5 million women yearly. 6 in 10 women who use PP report it as their main source of health care. 75 % of PP’s sufferers are 150 % under the FPL. PP has begun to shut its doorways in some states on account of laws that eliminates funding for the group. Without federal dollars, PP will be unable to serve the 14,676 sufferers who’ve been affected by the closure of 10 health facilities within the Midwest and Southwest. As a outcome, women could have much less entry to contraceptives, household planning and counseling, and most cancers and STI screenings.

What actions may be taken to strengthen the Affordable Care Act?

Many health specialists consider that the ACA must be repaired as an alternative of repealed and changed. What are a number of the methods to perform this objective? First, Medicaid ought to be expanded in states that haven’t but completed so and lift the revenue degree for qualifying in order that extra individuals are eligible to enroll. The Federal authorities might additionally present extra funds to decrease the price of health insurance coverage that people and households face. This could possibly be completed partially by growing the extent of subsidies obtainable for insurance policy bought on the exchanges, or elevating the revenue thresholds at which the subsidies part out—or each. Strategies are wanted to get extra wholesome individuals to buy insurance coverage together with contemplating an automated insurance coverage enrollment process. With extra wholesome individuals within the danger pool, insurance coverage premiums can be decreased. Private insurance coverage markets solely work properly when there’s a giant and diversified danger pool. If they’re going to present common or near-universal protection, the person mandate should be enforced which can imply elevating the penalties for non-compliance and implementing them extra successfully. A public choice, “A Healthy USA Plan” and/or decreasing the age for enrollment into Medicare may additionally be thought-about as methods to get extra individuals insured. Additionally, there’s $eight billion in reinsurance funds which were promised to insurance coverage corporations beneath provisions of the ACA that would assist convey premiums down however have been blocked by Republicans. Drug costs also needs to be higher negotiated. America is the one nation within the industrialized world that doesn’t include rising pharmaceutical prices on this method.

Sadly, the Administration’s proposed FY2018 price range (A New Foundation for American Greatness) does the other of strengthening the ACA. While it proposes to get rid of the nation’s finances deficit, as an alternative the finances offers main tax cuts to the rich on the expense of the sick and the poor. The Tax Policy Center estimates that the highest 1% of wage earners would obtain a $37, 500 tax minimize yearly whereas the center class would get a few $300 tax minimize. The Administration’s finances proposes vital cuts to Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) over the subsequent ten years and prohibits any federal funding for Planned Parenthood. The FY2018 finances additionally features a $192 billion minimize from the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) which can negatively have an effect on 40 million low revenue Americans, 50% of whom are youngsters. It additionally reduces the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) price range by 17 %, considerably impeding efforts to construct a tradition of health in America and jeopardizing public health preparedness initiatives to assist forestall and reply to infectious illness outbreaks within the United States. Additionally, the finances features a $6 billion minimize for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) which might critically thwart efforts to find cures and prevention methods for the illnesses that have an effect on women and males in our nation at present.

The backside line: the ACA of 2010 considerably lowered the variety of uninsured women in America, offering tens of tens of millions of individuals with complete health providers, a affected person’s “Bill of Rights” that prohibits discriminatory insurance coverage practices, and has begun a prevention revolution because of many provisions contained within the regulation. Under the AHCA, an estimated 23 million individuals will lose their health insurance coverage by 2026. American women will get sicker once more. The ACHA will reduce taxes for the rich however have devastating results for the health of Americans in addition to for the budgets of state governments, hospitals and public health packages. We can and should do higher as a nation.

Over the previous 25 years, a lot progress has been made to advance women’s health. As a results of the passage of the ACA, a essential ingredient was added to the nationwide prescription to enhance women’s health that had been lacking till lately—entry to complete, high quality health care. The ACA accommodates provisions to deal with the distinctive wants of women throughout their lifespan.

Recent debate has targeted on repealing and changing the ACA as an alternative of strengthening the regulation. The passage of the American Health Care Act (AHCA) earlier this month within the U.S. House of Representatives eliminates the enlargement of Medicaid by slicing virtually $1 trillion from this system over the subsequent ten years, removes subsidies to buy insurance coverage for low revenue Americans, blocks Planned Parenthood from receiving Medicaid reimbursements, permits states to remove Essential Health Benefits and cost greater insurance coverage premiums for individuals with pre-existing circumstances, and cuts essential prevention and preparedness funds. Since entry to complete health care is a key aspect within the prescription for women’s health fairness, all of us have a lot at stake within the present debate over the way forward for America’s personal and public insurance coverage packages.

Nobel Prize winner, Madame Marie Curie, as soon as stated, “I never see what has been done. I only see what remains to be done.” Let us resolve to do what stays to be completed to strengthen the Affordable Care Act, improve investments in medical analysis, and emphasis the facility of prevention to make sure a more healthy future for all women—and males—within the United States.

Rear Admiral Susan J. Blumenthal, M.D., M.P.A. (ret.) is the Public Health Editor of the Huffington Post. She is a Senior Fellow in Health Policy at New America, a Clinical Professor at Tufts and Georgetown University Schools of Medicine, and Senior Policy and Senior Policy and Medical Advisor at amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research. Dr. Blumenthal served for greater than 20 years in senior health management positions within the Federal authorities within the Administrations of 4 U.S. Presidents together with as the primary Deputy Assistant Secretary of Women’s Health, Assistant Surgeon General of the United States, and as Senior Global Health Advisor within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She additionally was a White House Advisor on health. Prior to those positions, Dr. Blumenthal served as Chief of the Behavioral Medicine and Basic Prevention Research Branch and Chair of the Health and Behavior Coordinating Committee on the National Institutes of Health (NIH). She has chaired quite a few nationwide and international commissions and conferences and is the writer of many scientific publications. Admiral Blumenthal has acquired many awards together with honorary doctorates and has been adorned with the very best medals of the U.S. Public Health Service for her pioneering management and landmark contributions to advancing health within the United States and worldwide. Named by the New York Times, the National Library of Medicine and the Medical Herald as one of the crucial influential women in drugs, Dr. Blumenthal was named the 2009 Health Leader of the Year by the Commissioned Officers Association and as a Rock Star of Science by the Geoffrey Beene Foundation. She is the recipient of the Rosalind Franklin Centennial Life in Discovery Award.

Alexandrea Adams is a junior at Dartmouth College learning Biology and Public Policy. She is presently a Health Policy Intern at New America in Washington D.C.

[1] U.S. Department of Labor. “Fact Sheet – General Facts on Women and Job Based Health.” 10 Oct. 2012.

[2] Cecere, D. “New Study Finds 45,000 Deaths Annually Linked to Lack of Health Coverage.” Harvard Gazette. 06 May 2017.

[3] “World Health Organization Assesses the World’s Health Systems.” WHO. World Health Organization, 2017.

[4] “Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth,” Central Intelligence Agency, 2016

[5] H.R. 3590, 111th Cong., U.S. Government Printing Office (2010) (enacted).

[6] “Health Reform: Implications for Women’s Access to Coverage and Care.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 29 August 2013.

[7] “Health Insurance Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.” ASPE. 05 May 2015

[8] Centers for Medicare/Medicaid. Reducing Costs, Protecting Consumers: The Affordable Care Act on the One Year Anniversary of the Patient’s Bill of Rights, 2011.

[9] Centers for Medicare/Medicaid. National Health Expenditures 2015 Highlights. 2015

[10] Blacksher, E, “Health Reform: What’s Prevention Got to Do with It?” Hastings Center Report, vol. 39 no. 6, 2009

[11] Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease and Partnership for Prevention. The Value of Prevention.

[12] “Prevention and Public Health Fund.” HHS.gov. US Department of Health and Human Services, 16 Dec. 2016.

[13] Norris, L. “How Obamacare Changed Maternity Coverage.” Health Insurance Resource Center. 16 Aug. 2016.

[14] “Country Comparison: Maternal Mortality Rate,” Central Intelligence Agency, 2010

[15] Wong, R. and Palloni, A. “Aging in Mexico and Latin America.” International Handbook of Population Aging (2009): 231-52.

[16] “Our Time is Now” The GOP’s New Health Care Plan. 04 May 2017

[17] The Editorial Board, “Trumpcare’s Cruelty, Reaffirmed.” The New York Times, 27 May 2017.

[18] Mangan, D. “24 Million Would Lose Health Insurance Coverage under GOP’s Obamacare Replacement by 2026.” CNBC. 14 Mar. 2017.

[19] Ranji, U., Salganicoff, A., Sobel, L., and Rosenzweig, C. “Ten Ways That the House American Health Care Act Could Affect Women,” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 08 May 2017.

[20] “Marketplace Plan Selections by Gender,” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 09 Dec. 2016.

[21] Levitt, L., Damico, A., Claxton, G., Cox, C., and Pollitz. Okay, “Gaps in Coverage Among People With Pre-Existing Conditions.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 17 May 2017.

[22] Somashekhar, S. “Planned Parenthood to Close 10 Health Centers across Midwest, Southwest.” The Washington Post, 19 May 2017.

[23] “National Women’s Health Week.” Womenshealth.gov. 10 May 2017.

[24] Office of Management and Budget. “Budget of the U.S. Government: A New Foundation For Greatness.” 23 May 2017

[25] Achenbach, J., and Sun, L. H. “Trump Budget Seeks Huge Cuts to Science and Medical Research, Disease Prevention.” The Washington Post. 23 May 2017.

[26] Davis, J. H. “Trump’s Budget Cuts Deeply Into Medicaid and Anti-Poverty Efforts.” The New York Times, 22 May 2017.

[27] Blumenthal, M.D., S. “Healing America’s Health Care System.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 03 Aug. 2012.

[28] Blumenthal, M.D., S. “Women’s Health: Decades Later, What’s Still Neglected.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 08 Mar. 2011.

Source link