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What are the causes of cervicitis?

Cervix is a slender passage that connects the vagina to the decrease finish of the uterus. Cervicitis is a illness that causes irritation and irritation of the cervix. Most typically, cervicitis is a sexually transmitted illness, that’s, you get it out of your associate who’s already contaminated with cervicitis inflicting organisms. According to the World Health Organization, greater than 1 million sexually transmitted infections are acquired each day worldwide, and there are about 357 million new infections with both chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, or trichomoniasis. [1] Symptoms of cervicitis embrace pus like discharge, vaginal bleeding or recognizing between durations, or recognizing after intercourse or after menopause, and painful intercourse. Other signs embrace frequent and painful urination, irritation of the genitalia, and typically, decrease again ache.

Although the commonest trigger of cervicitis is an infection with the micro organism Chlamydia trachomatic and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, virus akin to herpes simplex virus (HSV) that trigger genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV), in addition to a protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis can even trigger the irritation of cervix. Here’s a 101 on some of them.


  • Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterium that causes the an infection via sexual contact.
  • The an infection primarily happens in women aged 25 years or much less.
  • Many individuals who have chlamydia don’t develop any signs, however they will nonetheless infect their intercourse companions.
  • It can even unfold from mom to child by being pregnant or when breastfeeding.
  • Although infants contaminated with chlamydia might not present apparent signs, it might trigger perinatal dying. However, early analysis and applicable remedy might scale back perinatal problems.[2]
  • Sometimes, the micro organism can switch to the eye inflicting acute conjunctivitis.
  • Reactive arthritis is a uncommon complication of chlamydial an infection.
  • The an infection resolves inside days to few weeks.
  • The an infection is treatable with antibiotics.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae:

This bacterium causes the an infection referred to as gonorrhoea, and usually, happens together with chlamydia in younger women aged 25 years or much less. So a lot so, researchers have discovered that younger age stays the strongest predictor of chlamydia and N. gonorrhoeae in women with cervicitis. [3]

The an infection is treatable with treatment. Untreated gonorrhoea may cause pelvic inflammatory illness (PID) which may result in problems corresponding to blocked fallopian tubes, ectopic being pregnant, infertility, and long run stomach and pelvic ache.

Mycoplasma genitalium:

It is the smallest recognized bacterium species liable for sexually transmitted an infection (STI). It  is an extended recognized trigger of male urethritis, and now researchers have discovered that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory illness in women. [4]

Risk elements embrace –

Younger women aged 21 – 23 years, and youthful age throughout first intercourse

  • Higher quantity of companions; possibilities of M. genitalium will increase by 10 % for each further sexual associate [5]
  • Having a associate with M. genitalium an infection
  • Co-infection with different sexually transmitted pathogens like Chlamydia

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) or genital herpes:

  • There are two varieties of genital herpes virus – herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2.
  • Herpes virus is dangerous in a lady of reproductive age as a result of the child may be contaminated from publicity to HSV in the genital tract throughout supply.
  • Typical symptom of HSV is the look of blisters and ulceration of the cervix. Blisters can break and trigger painful sores. Healing can take weeks. However, in lots of women these signs don’t happen, however they’ve copious creamy white discharge, which is extra widespread in the above talked about bacterial infections. [6]
  • Other signs embrace headache, swollen lymph nodes, and painful urination.
  • The virus is transmitted by having intercourse with somebody who has the illness. Fluids present in a herpes sore carry the virus, and make contact with with these fluids may cause an infection. The virus may also be launched by way of pores and skin and unfold the an infection to the intercourse associate. This is known as viral shedding.
  • -There is not any remedy for herpes cervicitis. However, medicines taken day by day can forestall or scale back the outbreak.
  • The solely to stop HSV an infection is to keep away from intercourse. Being in a long run monogamous relationship who has been examined adverse for HSV, and utilizing latex condoms the proper means can decrease possibilities of HSV an infection.
  • Herpes an infection throughout being pregnant may cause a miscarriage or untimely supply. The virus can move on to the child as nicely.

Human papillovirus (HPV):

Also referred to as genital warts, HPV an infection is characterised by flesh colored or gray progress in the genital space and anus in women.

  • HPV an infection is a quite common sexually transmitted illness that may happen at any age however is extra prevalent in younger individuals of 17-33 years of age.
  • It is one of the most contagious infections. Even a single sexual contact with an individual with genital warts may cause the an infection.
  • In some instances, HPV cervicitis can result in cervical most cancers. HPV-6 and HPV-11 are low danger infections for most cancers, however HPV-16 and better are excessive danger for cervical most cancers. Read extra about How you possibly can forestall cervical most cancers

Trichomonas vaginalis:

  • Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted illness brought on by a single-celled parasite (protozoan) referred to as Trichomonas vaginalis.
  • Symptoms embrace frothy yellow-green or grey vaginal discharge, itching of genitals, painful urination, discomfort throughout intercourse, and a foul odor from the vagina.
  • Symptoms might seem 5-28 days after publicity to the protozoan, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Trichomonas an infection can improve the danger of creating or passing on different sexually transmitted infections resembling HIV.
  • Pregnant women with T. vaginalis an infection are extra more likely to have pre-term supply and low delivery weight infants.
  • The an infection is handled with treatment, however all intercourse companions have to bear remedy. Normally, the an infection returns inside Three months of remedy and requires additional remedy.

Cervicitis isn’t all the time brought on by sexual transmission. Sometimes, different elements might contribute to the improvement of irritation or irritation in cervix. These embrace –

a.latex condoms

b.contraceptive spermicides

c.chemical compounds that come into contact with the vagina

  • Trauma to the cervix
  • Intrauterine gadget
  • Bacterial vaginosis, the place there’s overgrowth of dangerous micro organism in the vagina
  • Unknown elements; researchers have established that the majority infections are not brought on by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as thought earlier, slightly, for many instances of cervicitis the trigger shouldn’t be recognized. [7]

Cervicitis is a treatable situation that resolves in every week or so after beginning treatment. The solely exception is genital herpes which can’t be cured however it may definitely be handled. Cervicitis doesn’t result in most cancers. However, particular HPV infections might result in cervical most cancers in some instances.

See an Ob/Gyn in case you have new vaginal discharge or discharge that has modified color, or you’ve got recurrent ache throughout intercourse, or you might have vaginal bleeding in between your interval or after menopause.


  1. World Health Organization. Sexually transmitted infections.
  1. Numazaki Okay, Asanuma H, Niida Y. Chlamydia trachomatis an infection in early neonatal interval. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2003;Three:2. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-Three-2.
  1. Marrazzo J, Martin D. Management of Women with Cervicitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007;44(Supplement Three):S102-S110. doi:10.1086/511423.
  1. Sethi S, Singh G, Samanta P, Sharma M. Mycoplasma genitalium: An rising sexually transmitted pathogen. The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2012;136(6):942-955.
  1. Manhart LE, Holmes KK, Hughes JP, Houston LS, Totten PA. Mycoplasma genitalium amongst younger adults in the United States: an rising sexually transmitted an infection. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1118–25.
  1. Fowotade A, Okolo AC, Manga MM, Anaedobe CG, Salami AA, Akang EEU. Apparent Rarity of Asymptomatic Herpes Cervicitis in a Woman with Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device. Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2013;four(2):e14. doi:10.4081/jphia.2013.e14.
  2. Taylor S. Cervicitis of Unknown Etiology. Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2014;16(7). doi:10.1007/s11908-Zero14-0409-x.

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Published: April 25, 2017 11:03 am

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